THE GLOSSARY OF BEEKEEPING
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A to C
Abdomen: Segmented posterior part of bee containing heart, honey, stomach, intestines, reproductive organs, and sting.
Acarapis woodi: Scientific name of acarine mite, which infests tracheae of bees.
Acarine disease: Condition caused by Acarapis woodi.(Isle of Wight Disease)
Alighting board: Extended entrance of beehive on which incoming bees land.
Allele: One of a pair or series of alternative genes that can occur at a given point on a chromosome.
American foul brood (AFB): Contagious disease of bee larvae caused by Bacillus larvae.
A.M.M (Apis Millifera Millifera): The European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times.
These small, dark-colored honey bees are sometimes called the German black bee, although they occurred originally from Britain to eastern Central Europe.
Antennae: Slender jointed feelers, which bear certain sense organs, on head of insects.
Anther: Part of plant that develops and contains pollen.
Apiary: Group of bee colonies kept in one location (bee yard).
Apiculture: The science and art of studying and using honey bees for man’s benefit.
Apis: The genus to which the honey bee belongs.
Apis mellifera: Scientific name of the Western honey bee
Apis cerana: Scientific name of the Eastern honey bee, the honey producer of South Asia, also called Apis indica.
Apis dorsata: Scientific name for the large honey bee of Asia which builds open air nests of single comb suspended from tree branches, rocky ledges, etc.
Apis florea: Scientific name for the small honey bee of Asia.
Artificial insemination: See instrumental insemination.
Autopollination: The automatic transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma within a flower as it opens.
Bacillus larvae: Bacterial organism causing American foulbrood.
Balling a queen: Clustering around unacceptable queen by worker bees into a tight ball; usually queen is killed in this way.
Bee bread: Pollen & nectar mix fed to larvae.
Bee dance: Anthropomorphic term for one of several physical manoeuvres conducted within a bee colony; it has very inaccurate correlations relative to a forager’s flight experience in the field (distance and direction of the site visited), but it is believed that odour on the dancer’s body also appears to be a means of transfer of information that foragers use to find a discovered nectar or pollen source.
Bee escape: Device to let bees pass in only one direction; usually inserted between honey supers and brood chambers, for removal of bees from honey supers. Popular ones are Porter, Canadian plus Rhombus and Circular maze type
Beehive: A man prepared timber or polystyrene construction to home a colony of honey bees.
Bee louse: Braula coeca. A relatively harmless insect that gets on honey bees, but larvae can damage honeycomb.
Bee metamorphosis: The transformation of the bee from egg to larva to pupa and finally to the adult stage.
Bee moth: See wax moth.
Bee paralysis: An adult bee disease of chronic and acute type caused by different viruses.
Bee space: A space (1/4”- 6mm to 5/16”-8mm ) big enough to permit free passage for bees around and between the frames within a hive. First calculated by Rev.Langstroth of the USA.
Beeswax: Wax secreted from glands on the underside of bee abdomen; moulded by bees to form honeycomb.
Bee veil: See veil.
Bee venom: Poison injected by bee sting.
Bee yard: American term for an apiary.
Bottom board: Solid floor of beehive.
Brace comb: Section of comb built between and attached to other combs.
Braula coeca: See bee louse.
Brood: Immature or developing stages of bees; includes eggs, larvae (unsealed brood), and pupae (sealed brood).
Brood chamber: The area of the hive where the brood is reared; usually the lowermost hive bodies.
Brood comb: Wax comb from brood chamber of hive containing brood.
Brood nest: Area of hive where bees are densely clustered and brood is reared.
Burr comb: Comb built out of place, between movable frames or between the hive bodies.
Capped brood: Brood after 9th day ,either the last larval stage or pupal stage that has been capped over in its cell.
Capped honey: Cells full of honey, closed or capped with beeswax.
Cappings: Beeswax covering of cells of honey which are removed before extracting.
Castes: The three types of individual bees (workers, drones, and queen) that comprise the adult population of a bee colony.
Carniolan bees: A race of honey bees which originated in the southern part of the Austrian Alps and northern Yugoslavia.
Caucasian bees: A race of honey bees native to the high valleys of the Central Caucasus.
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD): a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or European honey bee colony abruptly disappear. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, the term colony collapse disorder was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of disappearances of Western honey bee colonies in North America in late 2006. The cause or causes of the syndrome are not yet fully understood and much research is being conducted seeking answers to this serious problem.
Cell: The six-sided compartment of a honeycomb, used to raise brood or to store honey and pollen. Worker cells approximate five to 27mm/linear inch, drone cells are larger averaging about four to the 27mm/linear inch.
Cell cup: Initially constructed base of queen cell; also made artificially for queen rearing.
Checkerboarding: A management technique to prevent swarming, first described in the USA by Walter Wright. See:http://www.beesource.com/forums/showthread.php?194278
Chilled brood: Brood that has died because of becoming cold and is often combined damp and poor ventilation of a hive. If a pesticide kills off all the foraging bees in a colony the small number of remaining nurse bees may not the ability to keep the brood sufficiently warm as the brood must be kept warm at all times. Opening a hive when the temoerature is exceptionall cold can chill the bees and they cannot recover the required temperature.
Chromosomes: The structures in a cell that carry the genes.
Cleansing flight: Flight bees take after days of confinement during winter or bad weather, during which they void their faeces.
Clipped queen: Queen whose wing (or wings) has been clipped to reduce the chance of the queen absconding. Often performed when the queen is marked.
Cluster: A name for the bees in the colony when huddled together closely to maintain the required temperature. As the temperature changes up or down, the cluster opens or closes to maintain the core temperature of the cluster.
Colony: Social community of several thousand worker bees, usually containing one queen, with or without drones. (See social insects.)
Comb: (See honeycomb).
Comb foundation: Thin sheet of beeswax impressed by mill to form bases of cells; some foundation also is made of plastic and metal.
Comb honey: Honey marketed and eaten in the comb.
Corbicula: See pollen basket.
Creamed honey: Honey made to crystallise smoothly by seeding with 10 percent crystallized honey and storing at about 57°F. See Dyce system.
Cross pollination: Transfer of pollen between plants which are not of identical genetic material.
Cut comb honey: Comb honey cut into appropriate sizes and packed in cardboard or plastic boxes.
D to G
Dearth: Severe to total lack of availability of nectar and/or pollen.
Demaree: Method of swarm control. The queen is separated from most of brood; devised by man of that name.
Dextrose: Also known as glucose; one of principal sugars of honey.
Diastase: Enzyme that aids in converting starch to sugar.
Diploid: An organism or cell with two sets of chromosomes, for example, worker and queen honey bees.
Division board: Flat board used to separate two colonies or colony into two separate colonies.
Drawn comb: Comb having the cells built out (drawn) by honey bees from a sheet of foundation. Cells are about ½”/ 15mm deep.
Drift: Movement of bees from their original hive into a neighbouring hive frequent with drones and surprisingly common with workers.
Drone comb: Comb with about four cells to 25mm/ 1” in which drones are reared.
Drone congregation area (DCA): an area where many drones from surrounding colonies gather to mate with queens during their nuptial flights.
Drone layer: A queen which lays only unfertilized eggs which always develop into drones. Results from improperly or non-mated queen or an older queen who has run out of sperm.
Dysentery: The discharge of faecal matter by adult bees within the hive. Commonly contributing conditions are nosema disease, can be exacerbated by excess moisture in the hive, starvation conditions, and low quality food. Multiple light brown, or black faecal smears on combs or outside of hive indicate such a problem.
Epignetic : Genetic changes that are locked into DNA.
Escape board: Board with one or more bee escapes on it to permit bees to pass one way. Used to empty one or more supers of bees when requiring the super/s to be taken off for honey extraction purposes.
European foulbrood (EFB): Brood disease of bees caused by Streptococcus pluton and possibly associated organisms.
Extractor: Machine that rotates honeycombs at sufficient speed to centrifugally remove honey from them.
Fanning: Worker bees fan the hive by directing airflow in or out of the hive of the hive depending on temperature within the hive. Pheremones can be fanned into the air from the bees nasanov glands(named after the Russian apiarist Nassanoff ) to act as an airborne message to lost or swarming bees to the present situation of the colony.
Festoon: A unique cluster of bees that link themselves together by their tarsi (feet) in a loose network between combs in a hive. Normally, these are aggregates of wax-producing bees.
FGMO: Food Grade Mineral Oil. Has been used as an alternative treatment for honey bee mites.
Forager bees: Those bees in the hive who are mature enough to fly from the hive on foraging missions seeking pollen, nectar and water.
Foundation: (See Comb foundation).
Frame: Rectangular, wooden honeycomb supports, suspended by top bars within hive bodies.
Fructose: or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants .
Full sisters: Selected queen or worker bees produced by a single queen and sired by different drones that are related to each other as brothers (used in bee breeding).
Fumagillin: Antibiotic given bees to control nosema disease until withdrawn in the UK in 2012..
Fume board: See Acid board.
Galleria mellonella: Scientific name of greater wax moth, whose larvae destroy honeycomb.
Gamete: A male or a female reproductive cell (egg or sperm).
Gene: A unit of inheritance located at a specific location in a chromosome.
Gene pool: The genetic base available to bee breeders for stock improvement.
Glucose: This is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate (Also see Dextrose).
Grafting: The transfer of young larvae from worker cells to queen cups as part of a queen rearing process.
Granulated honey: (See crystallised honey).
H to J
Half sisters: Queen or worker bees produced by a single queen and sired by drones that are not related to each other.
Haploid: An organism or cell with one set of chromosomes; for example, drone bee.
Hemizygous: The condition in which only one allele of a pair is present. Drones are hemizygous at all loci.
Heterosis: Hybrid vigour.
Heterozygous: An organism with unlike members of any given pair or series of alleles (bee genetics).
Histine Code: "histone code" - a process that sees genetic changes made to proteins called histones within cells' nuclei. The histone proteins might act as one of the switches that control how the larvae develop. e.g. queen or worker bees.
Hive: Man-constructed home for bees.
Hive stand: A device that elevates the bottom of a hive up off the ground. Also used to reduce the risk of ‘bee back’ a painful condition caused by bending and lifting hives.
Hive tool: Metal tool for prying supers or frames apart.
HMF (Hydroxymethylfurfural): an organic compound derived from dehydration of sugars by heat and is not acceptable in high quantities in honey. HMF can be used as an indicator for excess heat-treatment. For instance, fresh honey only has low amounts of HMF—less than 15 mg/kg—depending on pH-value and temperature and age]and the codex alimentarius standard requires that honey have less than 40 mg/kg HMf to guarantee that the honey has not undergone heating during processing, except for tropical honeys which must be below 80 mg/kg.
Hoffman frame: Self-spacing wooden frame of type customarily used in Langstroth hives, but now more being commonly used in many types of hive in the UK.
Homozygous: An organism with identical members of any given pair or series of alleles.
Honey: Sweet, viscous fluid elaborated by bees from nectar obtained from plant nectaries, chiefly floral, but can also be from honeydew. Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky liquid, secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. When their mouthpart penetrates the phloem, the sugary, high-pressure liquid is forced into the insect and out of the gut's terminal opening – basically it is aphid poo.
Honey bee: Genus Apis, family Apidae, order Hymenoptera.
Honey bound: When the brood nest is bounded or restricted by cells/comb filled with honey.
Honeycomb: Comb built by honey bees with hexagonal back-to-back cells on median midrib.
Honeydew: Sweet secretion from aphids and scale insects.
Honey extractor: (See Extractor).
Honey flow: Period when bees are collecting nectar from plants in plentiful amounts.
Honey house: Building in which honey is extracted and handled.
Honey pump: Pump for transferring liquid honey, usually from the extractor to storage tanks.
Honey stomach: (Honey sac) An enlargement of the posterior end of the oesophagus in the bee abdomen. It is the sac in which the bee carries nectar from flower to the hive or, water to the hive.
Hybrid: Offspring from two unrelated (usually inbred) lines.
Hymenoptera: Order to which all bees belong, as well as ants, wasps, and certain parasitic insects.
Inbred: A homozygous organism usually produced by inbreeding.
Inbreeding: Matings among related individuals.
Instrumental insemination: The act of depositing semen into the oviducts of a queen by the use of a man-made instrument.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM): is a pest control strategy that uses a variety of complementary strategies including: mechanical devices, physical devices, genetic, biological, cultural management, and chemical management. This system is common in most types of farming.These methods are done in three stages: prevention, observation, and intervention. It is an ecological ‘green’ approach with a main goal of significantly reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides yet controlling pest populations..
Introducing cage: Small wood and wire cage, more usually made of plastic today, which is used to transport queens . The cage usually has a hole which is plugged with candy/fondant which the bees remove to release the queen into the colony.
Invertase: Enzyme produced by bees that speeds inversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose.
Inverted or invert sugar syrup: is a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is obtained by splitting sucrose into its two components. Compared with its precursor sucrose, inverted sugar is sweeter and its products tend to stay moist and are less prone to crystallization. Inverted sugar is therefore valued by bakers.
IPM: (See Integrated Pest Management)
Italian bees: A race or variety of honey bee which originated in Italy and has become widely dispersed and cross-bred with other races.
Jenter System: The Jenter kit uses a system of plastic cups or 'cells' on a standard width of frame placed in a brood box in which a queen bee can lay her eggs. The cells containing the eggs can then be removed from the laying box and placed into an isolated box for larval development - with no direct handling of the larvae.
K : 'K-wing' seen as a symptom of acarite or varroa mite infection. Occasionally present with nosema apis infection.
Only ONE 'J and One 'K' Item
(unless you have some - if so please advise email@example.com )
L to T
Langstroth: A church minister from Pennsylvania who patented the first hive incorporating bee space thus providing for removable frames. The modern hive frequently is termed the Langstroth hive and is a simplified version of similar dimensions as patented by Langstroth. This type is very common in the USA but is now being seen in greater numbers in the UK.
Larva: Stage in life of bee between egg and pupa; “grub” stage.
Laying worker: Usual found in queenless colonies.They are worker bees which lay non-fertilised eggs producing only drones. Laying workers will lay multiple eggs per cell as a panic action due to the colony having no queen. A sign of this situation is a spotty brood pattern without system, an eg or several eggs are laid on the sides of the cell or off centre, due to the worker being too short in the abdomen to reach the bottom of the cell with her egg/s. Often undersize cramped up drone brood is found in worker sized cells.
Levulose: Non-crystallising sugar of honey which darkens readily if honey is overheated much like caramelising.
Locus: A fixed position on a chromosome occupied by a given gene or one of its alleles.
Mandibles: The jaws of insects.
Mating flight: The flight of a virgin queen during which time she mates with one or many drones high in the air away from the apiary. Queens usually mate with usually from 6 to 10 drones on two or more mating flights, the more drones she mates with the more diverse her offspring will be.
Mead: A pleasant wine made with honey. If spices or herbs are added, the wine usually is termed metheglin.
Metamorphosis: Changes of insect from egg to adult.
Migratory beekeeping: Movement of apiaries from one area to another to take advantage of honey flows from different crops e.g to oil seed rape fields or, to the moors for the heather crop.
Mite: A depilating parasite. See Acarapis woodi and Varroa jacobsoni.
Mutation: A term used to describe both a sudden change in the alleles or chromosomes of an organism and the changed form itself as it persists.
Nectar: A sweet secretion of flowers of various plants, some of which secrete enough to provide excess for the bees to store as honey.
Nectaries: Special cells on plants from which nectar exudes.
Nosema disease: Disease of bees caused by protozoan spore-forming parasite, Nosema apis.
Nucleus (Nuke, Nuc): A small colony of bees resulting from a colony division. Also, a queen-mating hive used by queen breeders.
Nurse bees: Three-to 10-day-old adult bees that feed the larvae and perform other tasks in the hive.
Observation hive: Hive with glass sides so bees can be observed.
Ocellus (ocelli): Simple eye(s) of bees.
Orientation flights: Short orienting flights taken by young bees, usually by large numbers at one time and during warm part of day. Young bees at first leave the hive backwards in ever increasing circles to keep sight of their home and to get a geographical fix on it in relation to the local environment and land marks
Package bees: A quantity of bees with or without a queen shipped in a wire and wood cage to start or boost colonies.
Paralysis: (See bee paralysis).
Parthenogenesis: Production of offspring from a virgin female.
Petroleum Jelly: Used to reduce the adhesive ability of propolis between surfaces in the hive.
Pheromones: Chemicals secreted by animals to convey information or to affect behaviour of other animals of the same species. (See queen substance.)
Pistil: The combined stigma, style, and ovary of a flower.
PMS (Parasitic Mite Syndrome): For years we have been seeing diseased bee larvae with symptoms resembling a cross between foulbrood and sacbrood. This new disease seems to be limited to colonies infested with Varroa mites. Additionally, beekeepers have experienced bees disappearing completely from previously healthy colonies in the early autumn. This situation is most likely associated with Varroa mites, viruses or even a combination of both.
Pollen: Male reproductive cells of flowers collected and used by bees as food for rearing their young. It is the protein part of the diet. Frequently called bee bread when mixed with nectar and fed to larvae.
Pollen baskets: corbiculae. Area on hind leg of some bees adapted for carrying pellets of pollen.
Pollen patty: Mixture of soya flour, sugar syrup, brewers yeast and and sometimes when available, natural pollen. It is used in times of pollen shortage as a pollen substitute for bee feed.
Pollen trap: Device which forces bees entering hive to walk through a 5-mesh screen, removing pollen pellets from their legs into a collecting tray.
Pollination: The transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of that or another flower.
Pollinator: The agent which transfers pollen such as an insect e.g. a bee.
Polliniser: The plant source of pollen used for pollination; e.g., polliniser varieties of apples and pears must be planted in order to produce a crop. Bees must carry the pollen from one variety to another.
Proboscis: Mouth parts of bee for sucking up nectar, honey, or water.
Propolis: A glue or resin collected from trees, buds or, other plants by bees; used to close holes and cover surfaces in the hive. Also called ‘bee glue’.Now being used in skin creams etc.
Pupa: Stage in life of a developing bee after larva and before maturity. A chrysalis.
Queen: Sexually developed female bee. The mother to all bees in the colony.
Queen cell: a special cell of extended length in which queen develops.
Queen cup: The beginnings of a queen cell in which the queen may lay a fertile egg to start the rearing of another queen, usually prior to swarming.
Queen excluder: Device usually made of wood and wire, expanded
mesh or plasticwith openings to permit worker bees to pass through but excluding queens and drones. Used to restrict the queen to certain parts of the hive.
Queenright: A colony of bees with a properly functioning queen.
Queen substance: Queen Mandibular Pheromone, or QMP, is a honey bee pheromone produced by the queen and fed to her attendants who share it with the rest of the colony that gives the colony the sense of being queenright . Pheromone material transmitted throughout the colony by workers.
Quilt : A method for the absorbtion of condensation in the top of a warre hive. 100 mm high (eke) ‘quilt’ boxed with wood, filled with straw, sawdust, wood shavings etc., retained underneath with permeable strong cloth or nylon mesh.
Race: Populations of bees, originally geographically isolated and somewhat adapted to specific regional conditions.
Ripening: Process whereby bees evaporate moisture from nectar and convert its sucrose to dextrose (glucose) and levulose (fructose), thus changing nectar into honey.
Rendering wax: Melting old combs and wax cappings and removing refuse to partially refine the beeswax.
Requeen: To replace a queen in a hive. Often to replace an old queen with a young one.
Robbing: Bees steal honey from other hives. A common problem when nectar is not available in the field.
Ropiness: Often described when testing for AFB. Dead bee larva in a cell having the characteristic of sticky elasticity and stringing out when stirred and stretched with a matchstick.
Royal jelly: Glandular secretion of young worker bees used to feed the queen and young brood.
Sac brood: A fairly common virus disease of larvae, usually nonfatal to the colony.
Scale: Often related to a symptom of AFB . A dehydrated, dead larva shrunken to an elongated thin, flat dark chip at the bottom of a cell.
Scout bees: Worker bees searching for nectar or other needs including suitable location for a swarm to nest.
Sealed brood: Cells of larvae/pupae sealed with a wax cap after 9th day.
Self-pollination: The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or to flowers of the same plant or other plants of identical genetic material such as some apple varieties, clones of wild blueberries, etc. (See autopollination).
Septicemia: Usually minor disease of adult bees caused by Pseudomonas apiseptica. Septicemia is a bacterial disease of adult honey bees that is rarely encountered; it is caused by Pseudomonas apiseptica Burnside. The bacteria, by some unknown method, make their way to the hemolymph, multiply rapidly, and ultimately cause the death of the host.Bees that die from septicemia appear to have no connective tissues and dismember easily. The legs, wings, head, thorax, and abdomen separate-even by the slightest handling
SHB: Small Hive Beetle (Aethina tumida). Not yet infecting colonies in the UK, but is now causing problems in Northern France. Beekeepers in southern England must be observant for any arrival of this pest. If noticed, immediate notification to FERA must be made. The apiary should be placed into voluntary isolation by the beekeeper. The small hive beetle can be a destructive pest of honey bee colonies, causing damage to comb, stored honey and pollen. If a beetle infestation is sufficiently heavy, they may cause bees to abandon their hive. The beetles can also be a pest of stored combs, and honey (in the comb) awaiting extraction. Beetle larvae may tunnel through combs of honey, feeding and defecating, causing discoloration and fermentation of the honey.
Skep: A beehive, usually of straw and dome-shaped, that lacks movable frames.
Slatted Bottom Rack: A ventilation board that fits between the bottom hive body and the bottom board (Langstroth Hive). It provides cluster space for bees, allows air circulation without allowing a direct draft on the brood, and helps prevent swarming.
Slum-gum: A dark dirty residue, consisting of brood cocoons and old pollen, which is left after wax is rendered from old brood frames by the beekeeper.
Smoker: Device used to blow smoke on bees to calm them down. Said to cause the bees to believe there is a fire which could threaten their survival so they rush away to gorge on honey as emergency stores in case they have to abandon the hive.
Social insects: Insects which live in a family society, with parents and offspring sharing a common dwelling place and exhibiting some degree of mutual cooperation; e.g., honey bees, ants, termites.
Solar wax melter: Glass-covered box in which the temperature rises by the sun’s rays and melts wax combs and cappings. The wax is recovered in cake form.
Spermatheca: Small saclike organ in the queen in which sperms are stored.
Spermatoza: Male reproductive cells produced by the drone bees.
Spiracles: External openings of the tracheae through which bees breathe.
Stamen: Male part of flower on which pollen-producing anthers are borne.
Sting: Modified ovipositor of female Hymenoptera developed into organ of defence.
Sucrose: The main solid ingredient of nectar before inversion into other sugars.
Super: A wooden box with frames containing foundation or drawn comb in which honey is to be stored by the bees. Named for its superior position above the brood nest. The same type of box is referred to as a hive body when it is situated below the honey supers and is intended to be used for extra brood rearing space and storage. This configuration is often called a brood and half A queen excluder is situated between this box and the super above it.
Supersedure: The replacement of a weak or old queen in a colony by a daughter queen – a natural occurrence.
Supersisters: Queens or worker bees produced by a single queen and sired by identical sperm from a single drone (subfamily).
Surplus honey: A term generally used to indicate an excess amount of honey above that amount needed by the bees to survive the winter. This surplus is usually removed by the beekeeper.
Swarm: Natural division of a colony of bees for propagation of the species. I was native to
Tellian bee: From which it is believed that all other stains of bees evolved. It was originally situated in northwest Africa and spread northwards as the last Ice Age ended.
Thorax: Middle part of bee.
Tracheae: Breathing tubes of insects.
Tracheal mite: (See Acarapis woodi)
Trophallaxis: the mutual mouth to mouth exchange of regurgitated liquids between adult social insects or between them and their larvae.
U to W
Uncapping knife: cold or electrically heated knife used to remove honey cell caps so honey can be extracted.
Unite: Combine one colony with another. A common method is the ‘newspaper method’.
Unsealed brood: Brood in egg and larval stages only.
Varroa destructor: An external parasitic mite that attacks honey bees .
Virgin queen: Unmated queen.
Walk-away split: Frames with eggs and worker bees are removed from a queenright hive and installed into an empty brood chamber or nuc. The bees should create a queen cell out of a suitable egg. Once the queen hatches, successfully mates and returns to the hive, the hive will itself be queenright. Another option is to remove one complete brood chamber from a hive that has newly laid eggs in it, including bees, and move to a new location a minimum of three miles / 5km away for the start of a new colony.
Warre: Warre hives have a simple hive box with no frames. The bees draw down their own comb from top bars affixed to each box.
Wax glands: Glands on underside of bee abdomen from which wax is secreted after the bee has been gorged with honey.
Wax moth: Lepidopterous insect whose larvae destroy wax combs.
Winter cluster: Closely packed colony of bees in winter.
Wired foundation: Foundation with strengthening wires embedded in it.
Wired frames: Frames with wires holding sheets of foundation in place.
Worker bee: Sexually undeveloped female bee.
Worker comb: Honeycomb with about 25 cells per square inch/27mm sq.
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